Other studies have shown corresponding effects on school achievement.Bodovski and Youn (2010) find that the use of physical discipline in kindergarten is associated with lower fifth grade math achievement. (2010) find that children who were spanked are at higher risk of academic failure in the fifth grade.Studies dating back to the early 1960s suggest a relationship between corporal punishment and decreased cognitive ability in early childhood.
(2013) show that father’s high-frequency spanking at age five was associated with lower child vocabulary scores at age nine.
Therefore, we replicate the above exercise in two ways—by frequency of spanking in the previous week (Figure 4) and by frequency across the two weeks (Figure 5).
Although sample size limitations prevent us from looking at mothers who reported hitting their children more than five times in the previous week, it is clear that—at least up until five—there is little evidence of any relationship between spanking and HOME score, even taking frequency in to account.
Children spanked frequently and/or severely are at higher risk for mental health problems, ranging from anxiety and depression to alcohol and drug abuse, according to some research studies.
Children whose parents hit them regularly may also develop more distant parent-child relationships later on.