These groups had strong influences on the city and its culture.
Later immigrants to New Orleans, such as Irish, Germans, and Italians, also married into the Creole groups. Throughout the 19th century, most spoke French and were strongly connected to French colonial culture.
An estimated 7,000 European immigrants settled in Louisiana during the 18th century, one percent of the number of British colonists in the Thirteen Colonies along the Atlantic coast.
Historian Joan Martin maintains that there is little documentation that casket girls (considered among the ancestors of French Creoles) were transported to Louisiana.
It was spoken by the ethnic French and Spanish and their Creole descendants.
The commonly accepted definition of Louisiana Creole today is a person descended from ancestors in Louisiana before the Louisiana Purchase by the United States in 1803.
Attacks by Native Americans represented a real threat to the groups of isolated colonists.
The Natchez killed 250 colonists in Lower Louisiana in retaliation for encroachment by the Europeans.