Absolute advantage: The ability to produce a good at lower cost, in terms of labor, than another country.
Accelerated depreciation: Methods of depreciation that write off the cost of a capital asset faster than under straight-line depreciation.
The adjustment divides nominal amounts for different years by price indices for those years -- e.g.
the CPI (Consumer price index) or the implicit price deflator -- and multiplies by 100. valued at the prices of the base year for the price index.
Act of State Doctrine: This doctrine says that a nation is sovereign within its own borders and its domestic actions may not be questioned in the courts of another nation. tax code, income from an active business as opposed to passive investment income. ABC) : An accounting method that allocates costs to specific products based on breakdowns of cost drivers.
Active fund management: An investment approach that actively shifts funds either between asset classes (i.e. Activity ratios: Ratios that measure how effectively the firm is using its assets.