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Finally, on the northwestern frontier of Arabia, various languages known to scholars as Thamudic B, Thamudic D, Safaitic, and Hismaic are attested.The last two share important isoglosses with later forms of Arabic, leading scholars to theorize that Safaitic and Hismaic are in fact early forms of Arabic and that they should be considered Old Arabic.Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Saracens from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries.Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino).This article is about the general language or language group.

Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.

In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family (e.g. It is also believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages (non-Central Semitic languages) were also spoken in southern Arabia at this time.

To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz, Dadanitic and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages.

Beginning in the 1st century CE, fragments of Northern Old Arabic are attested in the Nabataean script across northern Arabia.

By the 4th century CE, the Nabataean Aramaic writing system had come to express varieties of Arabic other than that of the Nabataeans.

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