Ankara has pressured countries hosting many of Gülen’s followers to crack down on the movement, and Turkmenistan appears to be susceptible to the pressure.
The age requirement is reduced for mothers with three or more children, persons disabled before age 16, military personnel, pilots and flight crew, and persons working in hazardous occupations.
The high schools, language centers, and university had a reputation for having the highest educational standards in the country, teaching a Western-style curriculum that included English and Turkish, as well as Gülen’s religious teachings.
Most of them closed by August 2011, possibly because current President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov is said to have a less close relationship with the Gülen movement than his predecessor, Saparmurat Niyazov. It was suspected that [Gülen followers] were perceived by [Berdymukhamedov] as too influential,” said Victoria Clement, a research scholar specializing in Central Asia at the Woodrow Wilson Center and one of the few westerners to have lived and done academic research in Turkmenistan.
For certain employers, the contribution varies according to sector.
The employer's contributions also finance sickness, maternity, and work injury benefits.